The organised sector of poultry industry is contributing nearly 70% of the total output and the rest 30% in the unorganised sector. The broiler industry is well dominated in southern states in our country with nearly 60-70% total output coming from these states. The layer industry once again is represented more in southern states especially, Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu and Maharashtra, producing nearly 70% of the country's egg production. India's 75% of egg produce is consumed by the 25% population living in urban and semi-urban areas. Presently about 800 hatcheries are operating in the country.
Per capita consumption
The National Institute of Nutrition has recommended 180 eggs and 11 kg of meat per capita consumption for our country. At present,
· Per capita availability of meat is 1.6 kg.
· Per capita availability of egg is 1.8 kg or 42 eggs
· Average consumption of eggs in major cities is 170 eggs
· Average consumption of eggs in smaller cities is 40 eggs
· Average consumption in developed rural areas is 20 eggs
· Average consumption in undeveloped rural areas is only 5 eggs
Though 20% of Indian population is vegetarian, with the rise of middle class and increased urbanisation people prefer to go for non-vegetarian.
About 3 million farmers and 15 million agrarian farmers are employed in the poultry industry that grows poultry ingredients for feed and contributes about Rs 26,000 crore to the national income.
India is the fifth largest producer of egg and ninth largest producer of poultry meat. India was positioned 17th in the world poultry production. The Indian poultry production is considered to be the cheapest in the world. Leading broiler integrators in India are as follows:
· Venkateswara Group, Pune
· Suguna Poultry Farms Ltd, Coimbatore
· Pioneer Poultry Group, Coimbatore
· Godrej Agrovet Ltd, Mumbai
· Sky Lark group, North India
· Jafa com feed
These companies account for nearly 40% of broiler industry integrators and contracts. Pioneer Poultry group introduced the concept of contract farming in the year 1980 and the concept of integration was introduced by Suguna Farms in 1990. Poultry farming came to be accepted as a viable activity by mid 1960s and the real thrust to development came in 1971 with the establishment of Venkateswara Hatcheries Pvt Ltd. The Central Poultry Breeding Farms laid the foundation for the development of poultry industry during 1959. Other agencies such as ICAR (CARI) contributed much in the R&D sector.
India has emerged as the only country in the developing world to be a self-reliant, technology driven industry, with capability to produce every essential input for successful poultry farming including indigenous genetic resource and breeding, world class poultry vaccines and medicines, specific pathogen free eggs (SPF), farms and hatchery automation systems, pelleted feed, egg processing, poultry processing, nationwide network of disease diagnostic laboratories and facilities for entrepreneurial development and training in both private and public sectors.
Rural Poultry Production
Rural poultry production constitutes important components of agricultural economy in India. Small poultry holders are practically capable of more significant contribution to alleviate malnutrition, poverty and unemployment. A spectacular progress has been made from subsistence to sustainable production system. Indian backyard population increase is only by 16% in the last 30 years from 60-70 million. China's 76% of total egg comes from rural backyard production. India requires both mass production as well as production by masses.
India produces 3.6% of global egg production, i.e., 61 million tonnes. The annual growth rate of egg is 5-8%. India has the lowest cost of egg production in the world at 2.55 US cents per egg.
Value added products
The introduction of new poultry products and perceptible shift in eating habits are moving people to branded food such as chicken yummiez, cold cuts, breaded and coated snacks, marinated snacks, chicken nuggets, canned chicken curry, freeze dried chicken pulao, meat soup, powder omelette and scrambled egg mixtures, sandwich, pizza, burger and dial-a-chicken and to fast food joints like Kentucky Fried Chicken (KFC), McDonald's, Wimpy and Pizza Hut. All this is going to change the palatability of the chicken consumer.
Chicken eggs are used to produce source of molecules to treat snakebite. Duck embryos are used in manufacturing anti-rabies vaccine. Diet eggs or designer eggs are going to boost special eggs for vitamin E substitution, Omega fatty acids and antioxidant requirements. Poultry eggs and meat have got sensorial, curative, nutritive and therapeutic potential. Poultry is labour intensive and has a potential to create 25,000 more jobs on the consumption of one more egg per capita and similarly 25,000 additional jobs on the consumption of 100 gm more chicken meat.
The study was conducted by the Ministry of Food Processing Industries (MoFPI)